A substantial, long-lived deciduous tree, it produces an edible seed, the chestnut, which has been used in cooking since ancient times. nut shell than in extracts of eucalyptus bark. The species is widely cultivated for its edible seeds (also called nuts) and for its wood. [12] Carbonised sweet chestnuts were found in the Roman Villa Torre Annunziata, destroyed by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in A.D. It is a native of northern and central parts of Asia, from … Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum), which has similar nuts, but those of the sweet chestnut are smaller and found in clusters. The optimal average temperature is between 8 °C and 15 °C[25] and in January the temperature should preferably not be below -1 °C[27] but it may tolerate temperatures as low as -15 °C. Sweet chestnut is a deciduous tree which can reach 35m when mature and live for up to 700 years. [10] Nowadays there are cultivars that are resistant to the ink disease. bark extract: cardiovascular activity and myocyte protection against oxidative damage Oxid Med Cell Longev. [19] While the husks of sweet chestnuts, dated to the third or early fourth century, have been identified from the bottom of a Roman well at Great Holts Farm, Boreham, UK; this deposit includes remains of other exotic food plants and provides no evidence that any of them originated locally. The Woodland Trust is a charity registered in England and Wales (No. [49] Responsible for the aromatic characteristics of cooked chestnuts is the effect of degradation of saccharides, proteins and lipids, the caramelization of saccharides and the maillard reaction that is reducing sugar and amino acids. Flowers and Fruits. The fruit contains significant amounts of a wide range of valuable nutrients. The remains of the male catkin stay attached to the husk until it falls off. It is used to make furniture, barrels (sometimes used to age balsamic vinegar), and roof beams notably in southern Europe (for example in houses of the Alpujarra, Spain, in southern France and elsewhere). Image of foliage, form, texture - 129118645 These long-lived giants, with their prickly-husks and deeply grooved bark, give us our classic Christmas nut. The world’s oldest known chestnut tree grows on Mount Etna in Sicily and has a circumference of 190 feet. Transform your home into a woodland wonderland this Christmas with our easy ideas for festive, foraged home decor. Mature trees can reach up to 35m in height. Note the diseased bark is still fairly smooth but has longitudinal cracks. 2013;2013:471790. doi: 10.1155/2013/471790. However, high sugar amounts seem to have a negative impact on the fiber content. [32] The bark of a mature sweet chestnut is deep and furrowed. Sweet chestnut trees live to an age of 500 to 600 years. The sugar content is also affected by the high temperatures. Regarding mineral content, the chestnut provides a good source for Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and K.[39] Its sugar content ranges from 14% to 20% dry weight depending on the cultivar;[45] which is very important, since the sensory appeal of sweet chestnut is correlated with its sugar content. The Woodland Trust and Woodland Trust Nature Detectives logos are registered trademarks. It is often found in parkland as a specimen tree with a smooth grey bark and long dark green toothed leaves which contrast with the long, yellowish spring catkins. Flora Europaea: Learn how and when to remove this template message, List of Lepidoptera that feed on chestnut trees, colonisation of the Italian peninsula by the Greeks, "The Chestnut: A Multipurpose Resource for the New Millennium", "Ink disease in chestnuts: impact on the European chestnut", "The Cultivation of Castanea sativa (Mill.) 1982873. The flowers provide an important source of nectar and pollen for bees and other insects, while red squirrels eat the nuts. In other European countries, C. sativa has only been introduced recently, for example in Slovakia or the Netherlands.[22]. [7] The sweet chestnut is naturallyself incompatible, meaning that the plant cannot pollinate itself, making cross-pollination necessary. Sweet chestnut timber is similar to oak but is more lightweight and easier to work. 1 (1768). [37] Various composition and health studies have shown its big potential as a food ingredient and functional food. Types of mushroom in the UK: common identification guide, Foraging for natural Christmas decorations, Top tips for an eco-friendly and sustainable Christmas. These old trees provide us with our classic Christmas nut. Sweet Chestnut produces nuts in warm summers. [8], Tannin is found in the following proportions on a 10% moisture basis: bark (6.8%), wood (13.4%), seed husks (10 - 13%). The Horse Chestnut, Aesculus hippocastanum, which has also been known as Hippocastanum vulgare (Gaertn. The skin of raw peeled chestnuts can be relatively easily removed by quickly blanching the nuts after scoring them by a cross slit at the tufted end. A tree grown from seed may take 20 years or more before it bears fruits, but a grafted cultivar such as 'Marron de Lyon' or 'Paragon' may start production within five years of being planted. Download our free Tree ID app for Android and iPhone to identify the UK's native and non-native trees. Doing so is time-saving and economical, but it's possible that some fruits get injured, and a big initial investment is needed. On this two day course led by Nick McMillen; students will be shown how to prepare bark and then to weave a small foraging basket with a steam bent chestnut handle. [6] The oblong-lanceolate, boldly toothed leaves are 16–28 cm (6–11 in) long and 5–9 cm (2–4 in) broad. List of various diseases cured by Sweet Chestnut. Broadening with age, this tree can reach up to 40 metres in height. No other evidence of sweet chestnut in Roman Britain has been confirmed. Woodland Trust (Enterprises) Limited, registered in England (No. [5] The nut itself is composed of two skins: an external, shiny brown part, and an internal skin adhering to the fruit. Credit: Wendy Johnson / Alamy Stock Photo. Other common names include "Spanish chestnut",[2] or "marron" (French for "chestnut"). A newer but more reliable source are the literary works of Ancient Greece, with the richest being Theophrastus’ Inquiry into plants written in the third century B.C. A sugar can be extracted from them. Sweet chestnut timber is similar to oak but is more lightweight and easier to work. Sep 19th, 2011 by Richard. Twigs are purple-brown and buds are red-brown and oval in shape. Sweet chestnut. In southeast England, sweet chestnut is coppiced to produce poles.Unlike the nuts of the horse chestnut, those of the sweet chestnut are edible to humans and can be roasted and used in a variety of recipes, including stuffing for poultry, cake fillings, nut roasts and much more. Their high level of starch is similar to that of wheat and twice as high as the potato. It is thought to have been introduced to the British Isles by the Romans and today can be found commonly throughout the UK in woods and copses, especially in parts of southern England where it is still managed to form large areas of coppice. Under forest conditions, it will tolerate moderate shade well. Those ba… Autumn leaf identification quiz: can you identify these 10 trees? Find the perfect sweet chestnut tree bark stock photo. But the younger chestnut tree has a smoother bark. GB520 6111 04. In contrast to a cold storage system, where the fruits are stored at low temperatures in untreated air, the controlled environment method avoids flesh hardening which negatively impacts the processability of the product.[30]. [28] Before planting, seeds must be stratified at 2-3 °C so germination can start 30–40 days later. The flowers of Sourwood can be mistaken for chestnut at a distance. It is a species introduced to the UK and widely planted and extensively naturalised , especially on … Explore wrightrkuk's photos on Flickr. After water treatment, the sweet chestnuts are stored in a controlled environment with high carbon dioxide concentrations. They can also be used in confections, puddings, desserts and cakes. in Europe, from its origin to its diffusion on a continental scale", "Genetic structure of Castanea sativa in Turkey: evidence of a hybrid zone", 10.1002/1099-1417(200009)15:6<621::AID-JQS524>3.0.CO;2-L, "Reworking the idea of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) It grows long catkins, the remains of which stay attached to the husk until they fall off. Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) Hyd-rolysis of sweet chestnut tannins leads to the formation of two important phenolic acids: gallic and ellagic acid. Countries like England, Croatia, Turkey and Georgia only have a partially developed sweet chestnut tradition due to geography or history. Young trees can also suffer from squirrel damage. A large number of micro-moths feed on the leaves and nuts. The other native trees that bloom late in the year around the same time as American chestnuts are Black Locust and Sourwood. Phytophthora cambivora caused serious damage in Asia and the US, and it still continues to destroy new plantations in Europe. [10], Another serious pest which is difficult to control is the gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphylus) which was recently introduced in Southern Europe, originating from Asia. Castanea sativa, the sweet chestnut, Spanish chestnut or just chestnut, is a species of tree in the family Fagaceae, native to Southern Europe and Asia Minor, and widely cultivated throughout the temperate world. Registered in England No. There are three harvesting techniques: The total world chestnut harvest was 1,17 Mio Tons in 2006, but only 151 000 Tons were C. [28] It is a heat-loving tree which needs a long vegetation period. Tannins, when taken in controlled amounts, can relieve you from Diarrhea. It has a straight grain when young but this spirals in older trees. [25] Optimal precipitation is between 400 and 1600 mm. Also, the capsule makes the harvest more complicated and even painful for the worker. Credit: Martin Fowler / Alamy Stock Photo. Sweet chestnut is a deciduous tree which can reach 35m when mature and live for up to 700 years. Sweet chestnut has been found to be susceptible to fungal diseases. [27] The optimal pH value of the soil is between 4.5 and 6, and the tree cannot tolerate soil compaction. A local variety of Corsican beer also uses chestnuts. This tree responds very well to coppicing, which is still practised in Britain, and produces a good crop of tannin-rich wood every 12 to 30 years, depending on intended use and local growth rate. sativa.[29]. In general, the climate should be similar to viticulture. Sweet chestnut is found commonly throughout woods and copses in Britain. With biological control, the population of the sweet chestnut is not threatened anymore by the chestnut blight and is regenerating. Weird Trees Sweet Chestnut Magical Tree Unique Trees Old Trees Tree Trunks Nature Tree Big Tree Tree Forest. The tree is to be distinguished from the horse chestnut Aesculus hippocastanum, to which it is only distantly related. We have single trees and tree packs to meet your needs, from wildlife to woodfuel. Researchers at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Ghent in Belgium studied the use of tannins to control Salmonella Typhimurium infections in pigs (Van Parys A. et al, 2009).The aim of this study was to determine whether a hydrolysable tannin extract** of sweet chestnut wood has an inhibitory … Nevertheless, centuries-old specimens may be found in Great Britain today. [3] Some selected varieties are smaller and more compact in growth yielding earlier in life with different ripening time: the Marigoule, the Marisol and the Maraval. Image of form, branch, figure - 129117383 [12] Theophrastus focuses mainly on the use of sweet chestnut wood as timber and charcoal, only mentioning the use of the fruit once when commenting on the digestive difficulties it causes, but praising its nourishing quality. Its naturally high concentration of organic acids is a key factor influencing the organoleptic characteristics of fruits and vegetables, namely flavor. Credit: Yon Marsh Natural History / Alamy Stock Photo. In winter one of the easiest trees to identify is the Sweet Chestnut. [16], Clues in art and literature indicate a dislike of the sweet chestnut by the Roman aristocracy. Miller. You can’t id the tree from a distance by its shape but if you look closely at the bark, buds and shoots and then look for old leaves and old fruit underneath the tree, you can be sure that it is a Sweet Chestnut. [12], Increasing sweet chestnut pollen appearances in Switzerland, France, Germany and the Iberian peninsula in the first century A.D. suggests the spreading of cultivated sweet chestnut trees by the Romans. The horse chestnut bears similar looking seeds (conkers) in a similar seed case, which are not palatable to humans. It has a straight grain when young, but this spirals in older trees. Sweet chestnut can be a large tree up to 30 m in height, with a single trunk but is often coppiced to form a shrub of many straight poles. Spiral fissures may develop on old trunks; the bark is brown. Typically a veteran sweet chestnut will be 150-300 years of age and a notable sweet chestnut may be 100-200 years old. Inside, there is an edible, creamy-white part developed from the cotyledon.[5]. The Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa) was probably introduced to Britain by the Romans. There is very little mythology surrounding the sweet chestnut in the UK, probably because it was introduced. C. sativa attains a height of 20–35 m (66–115 ft) with a trunk often 2 m (7 ft) in diameter. [33][34][35] Sweet chestnut is also appreciated in a gluten-free diet. [25] The tolerance to wet ground and to clay-rich soils is very low. Discover our recent challenges and successes and how you can help. It is thought to have survived the last Ice Age in several refuges in southern Europe, on the southern coast of the Black Sea with a main centre on the southern slope of the Caucasus and in the region of north-western Syria, possibly extending into Lebanon. Nevertheless, roasted or boiled chestnuts may still be a solid vitamin C source, since 100 gram still represent about 20% of the recommended daily dietary intake. Sweet chestnut can grow up to 9m plus in girth. cultivation in Roman times: New data from ancient Campania", "Distribution and economic potential of the sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) Lifespan: 450 years Natural range: Mediterranean and Asia … Epub … [26], The sweet chestnut tree grows well on limestone-free, deeply weathered soil. The leaves also contain tannin. It can be used for carpentry, joinery and furniture. wrightrkuk has uploaded 4984 photos to Flickr. This Spring and Summer we have been experimenting with some of the uses of the bark from Sweet Chestnut Trees and wish to share some of our findings. Note: sweet chestnut should not be confused with horse chestnut (the conker tree) whose wood is white in colour and inferior for joinery purposes. [47][48] Heat appears to be the most influencing factor when it comes to decreasing the organic acid content. The two major fungal pathogens of the sweet chestnut are the chestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica) and the ink disease caused by Phytophthora cambivora and Phytophthora cinnamomi. [6], C. sativa is found across the Mediterranean region, from the Caspian Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. Size. Record all sweet chestnut … [5] Some cultivars only produce one large seed per cupule, while others produce up to three seeds. The cooked nuts can be used for stuffing poultry, as a vegetable or in nut roasts. The bark resembles a large twisted steel cable. [45], Sweet chestnut is suited for human nutrition. [9][10] In North America as well as in Southern Europe Cryphonectria parasitica destroyed most of the chestnut population in the 20th century. 294344) and in Scotland (No. Sweet chestnuts roasting on an open fire at Christmas, whilst in the kitchen preparations are under way in making chestnut stuffing. The Latin sativa means "cultivated by humans". [21] In the mid-seventh-century Lombard laws a composition of one solidi is set for felling a chestnut tree (or, also, hazel, pear or apple) belonging to another person (Edictus Rothari, No. Height: Broadening with age, the sweet chestnut can reach up to 40 metres in height. Article by Ursula Stopka. However, the ancient Greeks dedicated the sweet chestnut to Zeus and its botanical name Castanea comes from Castonis, a Town in Thessaly in Greece where the tree was grown for its nuts. The tannin renders the young growing wood durable and weather resistant for outdoor use, thus suitable for posts, fencing or stakes. [39][40] Sweet chestnut is a good source for starch,[41]; chestnuts of all varieties generally contain about the same amount of starch. However, even after heating sweet chestnuts, antioxidant activity remains relatively high. There is also a small risk of transmission by fruits or seeds.Locally, the spores of C. parasitica are spread by wind and water, but might a… The flowers of both sexes are borne in 10–20 cm (4–8 in) long, upright catkins, the male flowers in the upper part and female flowers in the lower part. What do Chestnuts look Like? Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF … Roast chestnuts are traditionally sold in streets, markets and fairs by street vendors with mobile or static braziers. [54] The wood is of light colour, hard and strong. Mechanical: The fruits are collected with a machine that works similarly to a vacuum cleaner. Sweet chestnut bark extract is particularly rich in tannins; therefore, we have investigated the ability of the extract to protect cultured cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress. VAT No. [13] Compared to other crops, the sweet chestnut was probably of relatively minor importance and distributed very heterogeneously throughout these regions. After a year, the young trees are being transplanted.[25]. In south east England sweet chestnut is coppiced to produce poles. Sweet chestnut is monoecious, meaning both male and female flowers are found on the same tree. With age, American species' bark becomes grey and darker, thick, and deeply furrowed ; the furrows run longitudinally, and tend to twist around the trunk … [13] The first charcoal remains of sweet chestnut only date from around 850-950 B.C., making it very difficult to infer a precise origin history. [12], Similar to the introduction of grape vine and olive cultivation to the Latin world, C. sativa is thought to have been introduced during the colonisation of the Italian peninsula by the Greeks. The leaves provide food for some animals, including Lepidoptera such as the case-bearer moth Coleophora anatipennella and North American rose chafer Macrodactylus subspinosus. [12] Widespread use of chestnut in western Europe started in the early Middle Ages and flourished in the late Middle Ages. How Sweet Chestnut is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. [49] On the other hand, the consumer must consider that roasting, boiling or frying has a big impact on the nutritional profile of chestnut. It is used to make furniture, bar… Chestnuts are highly nutritious and therefore helpful during convalescence. Photo about Interesting sweet chestnut tree bark in forest. Look out for: widely spaced teeth around the edges of leaves. [8], Castanea sativa is considered as having very interesting nutritional characteristics. [8], Sweet chestnut has been listed as one of the 38 substances used to prepare Bach flower remedies,[23] a kind of alternative medicine promoted for its supposed effect on health. [42] The energy value per 100 g (3.5 oz) of C. sativa amounts to 891 kJ (213 kcal). Its bark can be recognised from its long diagonal fissures. Sweet Chestnut bark seating Whilst running the intro to green woodworking course we took the time to peel the bark from the sweet chestnut logs before riving them down, with the aim of using it for weaving, principally for seating the chairs that I will be making this summer. [4] In cultivation they may even grow as old as 1000 years or more. The twigs are purple-brown and buds are plum, red-brown and oval in shape. The fruit yield per tree is usually between 30–100 kg, but can get as high as 300 kg. [35][38] The fat content is very low and is dominated for the most part by unsaturated fatty acids. We want to make sure everyone in the UK has the chance to plant a tree. Furthermore, this characteristic is valuable in cases of celiac diseases[36] as well as reducing coronary heart diseases and cancer rates. Making a basket from sweet chestnut bark 1 This entry was posted in Bushcraft Skills Woodland Skills on 29/05/2017 by Gary (updated 409 days ago) We’ve recently held our Cordage & Containers course and so took the opportunity to get some photos of the process involved in making a sweet chestnut bark basket. In Kent there are large woodlands full of Sweet Chestnut, planted for the production of hop poles used in the brewing trade. [25] Harvest time is between middle of September and middle of November. 2296645), is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Woodland Trust. [15] Nonetheless, until the end of the pre-Christian era, the spread and use of the chestnut in Italy remained limited. [12] Today's phylogenetic map of the sweet chestnut, while not fully understood, shows greater genetic similarity between Italian and western Anatolian C. sativa trees compared to eastern Anatolian specimen, reinforcing these findings. Four processes are decisive for the degrading process of sugar while cooking: hydrolysis of starch to oligosaccharide and monosaccharide, decomposition of sucrose to glucose and fructose, caramelization of sugars and degradation of sugars. 301, 643 CE). The raw nuts, though edible, have a skin which is astringent and unpleasant to eat when still moist; after drying for a time the thin skin loses its astringency but is still better removed to reach the white fruit underneath. Edible chestnuts or Sweet chestnuts (European chestnut (Castanea sativa); American chestnut (Castanea dentata)), but not horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum (also called Buckeye)), are safe to consume raw with few or no side effects. The aim of this work was the hydrothermal treatment of chestnut tannins in the temperature range 120–300 °C and reaction times of 15, 30 and 60 min. The sap wood is narrow and generally usable where a waney edge feature … [12] Several Greek authors wrote about medicinal properties of the sweet chestnut, specifically as a remedy against lacerations of the lips and of the oesophagus. Oxidative Damage. [30] The aim of this practice is to limit the main storage problems threatening the sweet chestnut: fungi development and the presence of insect worms. Gardeners Dictionary ed. 8 no. It can be used for carpentry, joinery and furniture. [12] Pollen data indicates that the first spreading of C. sativa due to human activity started around 2100-2050 B.C. [8] A hair shampoo can be made from infusing leaves and fruit husks. in Europe", "Projektstudie: Die Edelkastanie auf Obstwiesen - Eine Alternative zum Kirschanbau? The leaves are quite glossy and there are about 20 pairs of prominent parallel veins. 6 In modern herbal medicine, sweet chestnut’s bark, leaves, flowers and nuts are considered to be strengthening, calming, astringent, and digestive, even though the tree is not so well used today. Chestnut blight has recently arrived in the UK, which causes bark cankers and can lead to dieback and death. Both cultivars bear fruits with a single large kernel, rather than the usual two to four smaller kernels. Over 70 species found in the UK, from all the native trees to the common non-natives. Keep in touch with the nature you love without having to leave the house. [43] C. sativa is characterized by high moisture content which ranges from 41% to 59 %[44] and a considerable level of starch (≈40 g 100 g−1 dry matter). Examples can be seen particularly in the London Boroughs of Islington and Camden. The nuts are a valuable food source for many mammals. The trunk is mostly straight with branching starting at low heights. The product is sold as a sweetened paste mixed with vanilla, crème de marrons [fr], sweetened or unsweetened as chestnut purée or purée de marron, and candied chestnuts as marrons glacés. The most widespread treatment before storage is water curing, a process in which the sweet chestnuts are immersed in water for nine days. Sweet Chestnut Bark. [27] The maximal altitude is strongly dependent on the climate. [7], Leaf infusions are used in respiratory diseases and are a popular remedy for whooping cough. in Anatolia, northeastern Greece and southeastern Bulgaria. The leaves are completely different, with sweet chestnut having single, long, serrated leaves and horse chestnut having hand-shaped leaves with deeply divided lobes or ‘fingers’. The bark often has a net-shaped (retiform) pattern with deep furrows or fissures running spirally in both directions up the trunk. They can develop vast girths which can reach up to 2m in diameter. Bark on young trees is a dull silvery purple, with vertical cracks. [citation needed]. 79. They belong to the same family as oaks and beeches. The buds alternate on young shoots. The bark is radially crossed as it ascends the trunk. ", "Technological Parameters of Water Curing Affect Postharvest Physiology and Storage of Marrons (Castanea Sativa Mill., Marrone Fiorentino)", An easy way of peeling the pellicle, or pithy skin, "Chemical composition of chestnut cultivars from Spain", "Health benefits of nuts: potential role of antioxidants", European Forest Genetic Resources Programme, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Castanea_sativa&oldid=991269411, Articles with limited geographic scope from July 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Sweet chestnut bark is a superb material to make baskets with being both strong and flexible. By hand with nets: This technique is less time-consuming and protects the fruits from injuries. It is native to Southern Europe but has now become common on light non-chalky soils throughout Britain. It is said to be between 2,000 and 4,000 years old. While cleaning the soil from the leaves and pruning is the norm, the use of fertilizer, irrigation and pesticides is less common and reserved for more intensive cultivation. Flowers: Some catkins have male and female flowers on the same stalk. Since the beginning of the 20th century, due to depopulation of the countryside and the abandonment of the sweet chestnut as a staple food as well as the spread of chestnut blight and ink disease, C. sativa cultivation has dramatically decreased. 7 A non-profit-making company limited by guarantee. 1.5k. Raw horse chestnut seed, bark, flower, and leaf are UNSAFE and can … Furthermore, a visual sorting is not possible. All sweet chestnut will be ancient from 400 years onwards, although many will have ancient characteristics from around 300 years. Instead, fructose is mostly responsible for the sweet taste. [52][53], This tree responds very well to coppicing, which is still practised in Britain, and produces a good crop of tannin-rich wood every 12 to 30 years, depending on intended use and local growth rate. Sweet chestnut This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 05:04. Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Sweet Chestnut. The female flowers eventually form a spiky sheath that deters predators from the seed. June 2020. Images © protected Woodland Trust. These trees can develop vast girths of up to 2m in diameter. Ideally located in Fife Leisure Park (just off Junction 3 of the M90), we’re perfect for travellers, families visiting from the city centre, or visitors to the Bowlplex bowling alley and Odeon cinema. Chestnut blight canker on the stem of a sweet chestnut tree. Bark - sweet chestnut (C. sativa) Its bark is smooth when young, [22] of a vinous maroon or red-brown color for the American chestnut, [13] grey for the European chestnut. The bark is grey-purple and smooth, and develops vertical fissures with age.