In South Asia, four distinct population-level behaviours have been noted.  Eggs of the sarus crane are, however, used in folk remedies in some parts of India. , Breeding success (percentage of eggs hatching and surviving to fledging stage) has been estimated to be about 20% in Gujarat and 51–58% in south-western Uttar Pradesh.  More focused observations, however, show nesting patterns to be closely tied to rainfall patterns. The sarus crane is classified as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. In ecology, the trophic level is the position that an organism occupies in a food chain - what it eats, and what eats it. They are very amusing birds, going through the most grotesque dances and antics, and are well worth keeping in captivity. Food and Habitat Selection of Eastern Sarus Crane (Antigone Antigone SharpII) in Ayeyarwady Delta, the Union of Myanmar: 9. The sarus crane (Antigone antigone) is a large non-migratory crane found in parts of the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and Australia. In Australia, wintering, non-breeding sarus cranes forage in areas with intensive agriculture (primarily maize, sugarcane, groundnuts) and smaller patches of cattle grazing areas in the Atherton Tablelands in eastern Queensland. Classification Habitat & Range Wetland habitats including marshes, swamps and flooded fields. Reaching more than a million people every month.  Nest success (percentage of nests in which at least one egg hatched) for 96 sarus nests that were protected by locals during 2009–2011 via a payment-for-conservation program was 87%. Identify the species. There were about an estimated 15–20, 000 mature sarus cranes left in the wild in 2009. Loud, trumpeting calls … The tallest of the flying birds, standing at a height up to 1.8 m ftin, they are a conspicuous species of open wetlands in south Asia, seasonally flooded Dipterocarp forests in Southeast Asia, and Eucalyptus-dominated woodlands and grasslands in Australia. Sarus cranes perform courtship dances like those of other crane species which incorporate elaborate bobbing and wing displays.  They are omnivorous, eating insects (especially grasshoppers), aquatic plants, fish (perhaps only in captivity), frogs, crustaceans, and seeds. Lake trophic condition and diversity of aquatic macrophytes . However, the threats related to climate change, particularly sea level rise turned all these efforts into a stopgap action because the recipient cays are relatively low in relation to current sea level and will be impacted negatively by the projected increments in sea level and catastrophic events—hurricanes and droughts (PRCCC, 2013). The sarus cranes in India (referred to as A. a. antigone) are the largest, and in the east from Myanmar is replaced by a population that extends into Southeast Asia (referred to as A. a. sharpii). Thus, Australian sarus cranes average about 25% lighter than the northern counterparts and are marginally lighter on average than brolgas. Therefore, detail study on avifauna and their ecology is important to protect them, (Sarkar et ... and breeding for different trophic levels of birds. Loss of Biodiversity The IUCN Red List (2004) documents the extinction of 784 species in the last 500 years. One survey in Australia found 60% of breeding pairs to have successfully fledged chicks. ... 66 Sarus crane Grus antigone Sarus Cruidae 67 Slaty headed scimitar bulbular All feral pigs in New Zealand are the descendents of domestic pigs. ", Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland, "The Moghul emperors of India as naturalists and sportsmen.  Flocks in the non-breeding season are commonly seen in the Atherton Tablelands in eastern Queensland. Although venerated and protected by Indians, these birds were hunted during the colonial period. Two records are from near Normanton town: one of adults with flightless chicks seen about 30 km west of the town and another of adults incubating eggs seen 7-km south of the town. Premature adult mortality is often the result of human actions.  An exception to this rule was the unseasonal nesting observed in the artificially flooded Keoladeo-Ghana National Park, and in marshes created by irrigation canals in Kota district of Rajasthan, India. In Uttar Pradesh, less than a tenth of the breeding pairs maintain territories at wetlands while the rest of the pairs are scattered in smaller wetlands and agricultural fields. The little-known Philippine population became extinct in the late- 1960s. Unlike many other cranes that make long migrations, sarus cranes are largely nonmigratory and few populations make relative short-distance migrations. Many farmers in India believe that these cranes damage standing crops, particularly rice, although studies show that direct feeding on rice grains resulted in losses amounting to less than one percent and trampling could account for grain loss of about 0.4 - 15 kg. Sarus Crane Breeding Success in Uttar Pradesh K. S. Gopi Sundar A t nearly six feet, the Sarus crane is the tallest flying bird in the world. Elsewhere, the species has been extirpated in many parts of its former range. They roost in shallow water, where they may be safe from some ground predators. Matthiessen, Peter & Bateman, Robert (2001). The sarus used to extend to Thailand and further east into the Philippines, but may now be extinct in both these countries. The clutch is one or two eggs (rarely three or four) which are incubated by both sexes for about 31 days (range 26–35 days). Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Charles J Sharp, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International CLPramod, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Ad031259, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported J.M.Garg, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported Shyamal, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Thai National Parks. Let's enjoy some (occasionally surprising) examples of omnivores. The adult sarus crane is very large, with grey wings and body, a bare red head and part of the upper neck; a greyish crown, and a long, greenish-grey, pointed bill. , In India, sarus cranes preferentially use wetlands for nesting, but also nest in uncultivated patches amid flooded rice paddies (called khet-taavadi in Gujarat), and in the rice paddies especially when wetlands are not available to breeding pairs. In areas with perennial water supply, as in the western plains of Uttar Pradesh, breeding pairs maintain perennial territories. an ecosystem and maintain a trophic level. The Australian population shows the most recent divergence from the ancestral form with an estimated 3000 generations of breeding within Australia. In areas with perennial water supply, as in the western plains of Uttar Pradesh, breeding pairs maintain perennial territories. Migratory populations are also known from Southeast Asia and Australia. In his previous work, he has studied wildlife rehabilitation and ecotourism development, and has worked on herpetofauna and large water birds of Nepal, especially the Sarus Crane (Grus antigone antigone). This has been corroborated by nDNA microsatellite analyses on a large and widely distributed set of individuals in the sample. Territorial, breeding sarus crane pairs in northern Queensland along the Gulf of Carpentaria use a range of habitats, but preferentially use low, open woodland on quaternary alluvial plains in outer river deltas and levees with a vegetation of Lysiphyllum cunninghamii, Eucalyptus microtheca, Corymbia confertiflora, Melaleuca spp., Excoecaria parvifolia, Atalaya hemiglauca, Grevillea striata, Eucalyptus leptophleba, C. polycarpa, C. confertiflora, and C. bella. This high success rate is attributed to above-normal rainfall that year. The attitude of farmers tends to be positive in spite of these damages, and this has helped in conserving the species within agricultural areas. Dancing may also be a displacement activity, when the nest or young is threatened. In Etawah, Mainpuri, Etah, and Kasganj districts, nonbreeding sarus cranes form up to 65% of the regional population.  The nest is constructed within shallow water by piling up rushes, straw, grasses with their roots, and mud so that the platform rises above the level of the water to form a little island. North Point Press, New York. It is not known if this variation represents annual differences in conditions in the breeding areas or if it included biases such as different proportions of breeding pairs traveling to Atherton to over-winter. The sarus cranes from the Indian subcontinent are well marked and differentiated from the south-eastern population by having a white collar below the bare head and upper neck, and white tertiary remiges. No distinctive characteristic is known of this population. Two distinct populations of sarus cranes occur in Southeast Asia: the northern population in China and Myanmar, and the southern population in Cambodia and Vietnam. This is the smallest species of crane found in central Eurasia and known as Koonj in Pakistan. The population in India has however declined.  In the resulting rearrangement to create monophyletic genera, four species, including the sarus crane, were placed in the resurrected genus Antigone that had originally been erected by German naturalist Ludwig Reichenbach in 1853.