The Djed pillar is known to be “the backbone of Osiris” and was linked to the ideas of resurrection and eternal life and a symbol of strength and stability in ancient Egyptian culture. This ceremony was a part of one of the more popular holidays and celebrations of the time, a larger festival dedicated to Osiris conducted from the 13th to 30th day of the Koiak. The ceremony took place during the period when fields were sown and the year’s agricultural season would begin, corresponding to the month of Koiak, the fourth month of the Season of the Inundation. Additionally, the sacred tree and the Assyrian winged disk, which are generally depicted separately, are combined in certain designs, similar to the djed pillar which is sometimes surmounted with a solar disk. "May a stairway to the Netherworld be set up for you to the place where Orion is, Four horizontal bars surmounting a vertical shaft, These striations are shown in profile on the sides of the Djed creating a curved appearance, Sometimes a small capital can be seen surmounting the Djed, The Djed often stands on a rectangular base. The hands hold the crook and flail, the usual insignia of Osiris, the god of the dead. The meaning of ankh and What Does It Symbolize? It was also sometimes used to represent Osiris himself, often combined “with a pair of eyes between the crossbars and holding the crook and flail.”. They also point out that the Assyrian king is depicted in proximity to the sacred tree, which is similar to the depiction of the pharaoh in the raising of the djed ceremony. In fact, in several Book of the Dead spells, representations of the symbol are used to help reinstate the vertebrae of the deceased and consequently … The 'Tower of the Mummified body' is therefore an accurate description of the function and meaning of the Djed pillar and is reminiscent of the imagery evoked by the Legend of Osiris, in particular, the body of the dead Osiris-King becoming enclosed inside a huge pillar. Definition of djed in the Definitions.net dictionary. way is by depicting a male or female figure with a Symbol above their head. These were removed from the body during mummification, individually embalmed and placed inside jars, then reunited inside a funerary box and entombed with the body.16. 8, From the descriptions above it can be understood that the general concept of the Djed symbol appears to be a combination of the backbone of Osiris, a column or pillar, and the trunk of a tree. [2] Ptah gradually came to be assimilated into Osiris. The Four Sons of Horus also provide the deceased with food and drink that will sustain him in the afterlife as evidenced in utterance 338 of the Pyramid Texts: Perhaps the four canopic jars in which the bodily organs were placed were originally intended to represent these four jars of provisions that are mentioned in the texts. Eye of Horus. He states that originally Osiris was probably represented by the Djed alone, and that he had no other form. The backbone of Osiris was found at a place called Djedet, the Greek Mendes, 23 a well-established site of importance in the Delta during the Early Dynastic period.24 The god of the city was the sacred ram called Ba-Neb-Djed, meaning 'Ram, Lord of the Djed', though sometimes he was called 'Ram with four heads upon on neck' relating to a legend in which he unites within himself the souls of Re, Osiris, Shu, and Kheper.25 The god was worshipped as a form of Khnum and was also identified with Osiris.26, A local form of Osiris was made by merging with the Ram as 'Osiris the Ram, Lord of Djedu'.27, Osiris the Ram, Lord of Djedu The djed (Ancient Egyptian: ḏd 𓊽, Coptic ϫⲱⲧ jōt "pillar", anglicized /dʒɛd/) is one of the more ancient and commonly found symbols in ancient Egyptian religion. The Djed symbol is one of the more ancient and commonly found symbols in Egyptian mythology. The Djed is an ancient Egyptian symbol that resembles a column with a broad base and capital which is divided by four parallel bars. Another extremely well known ancient Egyptian Symbol is the so-called Eye of Horus 𓂀. Although they are usually described as standing at the four corners of Heaven, in a number of instances the gods of the four supportsof the sky are combined and positioned at the eastern horizon to take part in the resurrection of the dead king17 with the rebirth of the new sun. ..."he (Re) commends to me these four children who sit on the east side of the sky", "Raise yourself, my father, receive these your Four pleasant provisions-jars, Hapy, Duamutef, Kebhsenuf, and Imsety will expel this hunger. The Djed pillar, also known as " the spinal column of Osiris ", is a symbol that represents strength and stability in the culture of ancient Egypt. Ancient Egyptian Symbols were prolific throughout the region, as a way to convey information to the primarily illiterate society. In utterance 532 Osiris is struck down by Seth. The scene is described by Sigrid Hodel-Hoenes: The anthropomorphized pillar stands at the middle left, in a shrine. He indicates that the myth may represent the importance of the importation of trees by Egypt from Syria. We respect your privacy and will never share your email address with any person or organization. It started as a symbol of praise and worship, dating as far back as the pre-dynastic period even lending its … The pyramid belonging to a king named Khnum-Khufu has a chamber system resembling the image of a mummified body crowned with the top part of the Djed pillar, much like the figures of Osiris-Djed pictured above. The Djed may originally have been a fertility cult-related pillar made from reeds or sheaves or a totem from which sheaves of grain were suspended or grain was piled around. Later a division into four parts was made and the four corners of heaven were protected by four gods.12. This pillar is referred to by the Djed hieroglyph and the branches of this magnificent tree were said to have been turned to the four cardinal points. According to Wallis Budge, the Djed is the oldest symbol of Osiris, and symbolizes his backbone and his body in general. The djed was considered necessary to aid in the transformation of human flesh into the spiritual form assumed by the deceased in eternity. Another way in which these gods were related to the body of Osiris is through their association with his four bodily organs. The Djed pillar had been an object of worship since the pre-dynastic period, giving its name to the city of Djedu (Busiris, in the 9th nome of Lower Egypt). The pillar is on a high base reminiscent of the platforms visible today in many temples, on which the cult barks once stood. The story involves the murder of Osiris in which his body is trapped inside a chest and becomes enclosed in a huge tree at Byblos. The king of the land, intrigued by the tree’s quick growth, ordered the tree cut down and installed as a pillar in his palace, unaware that the tree contained Osiris’s body. the Symbol can be a Star , Scorpion, Crossed Arrows , Feather , etc. It has taken the shape of a human body with the djed-pillar as its head; the eyes are udjat-eyes. In utterances 544, 545, 670 and 688 of the Pyramid Texts, the Four Sons of Horus lift the king into the sky to be reborn. Ptah gradually came to be assimilated into Osiris. The same four youths are also responsible for binding together the reed boats on which the Sun god Re goes to the horizon in utterance 519, and in 522 they bring the boat built by the Ram-god Khnum. Djed Pillar Meaning The symbol appears as a pillar or a vertical shaft with four horizontal bars near the top which a series of lines between each bar. She asked for the pillar in the palace hall, and upon being granted it, extracted the coffin from the pillar. The Djed pillar represents the concept, the spoken & written word of stability. The Djed came to be associated with Seker, the falcon god of the Memphite Necropolis, then with Ptah, the Memphite patron god of craftsmen. It is a pillar-like symbol in hieroglyphics representing stability. The djed pillar was often used as amulets for the living and the dead. The Four Pillars of Heaven were personified as these four gods known also the Four Sons of Horus, who support the four corners of the sky with their sceptres. In front of and behind it are lotus and papyrus blossoms. The djed (/ dʒ ɛ d / in English) symbol is one of the more ancient and commonly found symbols in Egyptian mythology.It is a pillar-like symbol in hieroglyphics representing stability. The Djed is one of the more ancient and commonly found symbols in ancient Egyptian religion. Symbols of the flourish of said energetics on the territory of Egypt are the pyramids, as well as the devices Djed, Ankh, and Was. The Soul of Osiris incarnate as a Ram, The Djed is occasionally depicted surmounted by Ram horns, thereby associating it with the Ram of Mendes in the form of Ba-Neb-Djedu.28 The Rams horns are a common feature on the crown of Osiris and at times he is described as being two horned, tall of crown and of having great presence in Djedu.29, Osiris-Djed crowned with the two horns of the Ram. It was the symbol of the tree that grew around Osiris's casket and was used as a pillar in a Byblos palace. The next day marked the beginning of the four month long season of Pert, or 'Going Forth' during which the lands rose out of the flood waters allowing the fields to be sown.Djedu was also referred to as Per-Asar-Neb-Djedu, meaning "The House of Osiris - the Lord of Djedu". The ancient Egyptians divided the sky into two parts in very early times, with the Eastern end resting on the 'Mountain of Sunrise' and the Western end on the 'Mountain of Sunset'. Copyright 2017-2020 PsyMinds | All Rights Reserved |, {"cookieName":"wBounce","isAggressive":false,"isSitewide":true,"hesitation":"1","openAnimation":"lightSpeedIn","exitAnimation":"flip","timer":"","sensitivity":"","cookieExpire":"15","cookieDomain":"","autoFire":"","isAnalyticsEnabled":false}, Djed: Ancient Egyptian Symbol of Stability, Animal Magnetism: an Invisible Natural Force, Ayahuasca: The Guide to a Safe Experience, The Meaning of 1212 – 3 Reasons Why We Are Seeing 12:12, Top 10 Indigenous Tribes with Shamanic Traditions, How to Prevent a Bad Trip: a Guide to a Safe Psychedelic Experience, the ankh, symbol of life, the thoracic vertebra of a bull (, the djed, symbol of stability, base on the sacrum of a bull’s spine. The ankh was the sign of life that indicated the power to give or take away life, and could not be carried by ordinary… Four Pillars of Heaven | *We promise we will never SPAM you with unwanted emails. With the appearance of a pillar and three or more cross bars, there have been several theories as to the meaning of this enigmatic symbol, and what it represented to the ancient Egyptians who used it … Here we have another instance in which the pillar is combined with the human form. Associated with Osiris, god of afterlife, underworld and dead, also representing his … Erich Neumann remarks that the Djed pillar is a tree fetish, which is significant considering that Egypt was primarily treeless. The Old Kingdom variant of the determinative hieroglyph in this word 'backbone' is F41, the top part of the Djed Pillar: The Djed is frequently used to symbolize the Sun in its rising, and like the Djed, is a commonly used metaphor for the rebirth of the King's soul. Heaven is described in the Pyramid Texts as resting on the staffs of these four gods13 indicating that the quartering of heaven occurred at a very early time, before the Pyramid Texts were written. Symbols such as the Ankh, the Djed, the Wes Sceptre, the Winged Solar Disk and many more were instantly recognisable in Ancient Egyptian society, and had an important function in Ancient Egyptian Religion. But in these two ivory Djeds from the First Dynasty pictured below, we see that the Djed was originally more of a round pillar than a flat object. The Djed is an ancient Egyptian symbol for stability Known as “The Backbone of Osiris This … The Egyptian Book of the Dead lists a spell which when spoken over a gold amulet hung around the mummy’s neck, ensures that the mummy would regain use of its spine and be able to sit up. The Djed. The Feather of Maat symbol represents truth, justice, morality and … Like the ancient Chinese, the Egyptians associated the characteristics of each of the organs both with young children and with different animals. It was also painted onto coffins. Symbols allow people to tap into the unknown by creating linkages between different experiences and concepts.Eight pointed stars, also known as Octagrams, are… By the time of the New Kingdom, the Djed was firmly associated with Osiris. It looks like a column with a wide base whose capital is made-up of four parallel bars. There are four bands around the neck of the shaft under the first of the horizontal bars. Further celebrations surrounding the raising of the djed are described in a relief in Amenhotep III’s Luxor Temple. In life, these four organs process the air, food and drink and convert it into the energy that can be assimilated by the body, the generators of 'Life-Force' as it were. early creator god in the Predynastic Period whose attributes were later assumed by the deities Atum and Osiris It may be interesting to note a similar belief amongst the Taoists of ancient China where four containers are mentally constructed around the navel, into which the energies generated by the organs are collected. Furthermore, it brings us to the fascinating subject of iconic symbolism in religious and funerary architecture. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Copyright © 2002 by Vincent Brown It is a pillar-like symbol in Egyptian hieroglyphs representing stability. A common symbol, Djed is a sign of stability. In the Osiris myth, Osiris was killed by Set by being tricked into a coffin made to fit Osiris exactly. Meaning of djed. Djed pillar, which is also known as “the backbone of Osiris”, is the symbol that represents strength and stability in ancient Egyptian culture. It is associated with the creator god Ptah and Osiris, the Egyptian god of the afterlife, the underworld, and the dead. [6] Ptah was often referred to as "the noble djed", and carried a scepter that was a combination of the djed symbol and the ankh, the symbol of life. After the ankh symbol, the icon commonly called the Eye of Horus is the next most … He suggests that as time went on it was drawn on a stand with a broadened base to form what we see as the Djed.11. Mohamed is showing us that there are earlier representations for the famous symbols at Dendera Temple, and they are from New Kingdom, Hatshepsut's time. Many associate this symbol with the spine of Osiris, the Egyptian god of the dead. A number of Egyptologists have in the past expressed the possibility that these inaptly named 'air-shafts' were actually intended as release passages for the soul of the King entombed within the chamber that they emanate from. Ceremonies in Memphis are described where the pharaoh, with the help of the priests, raised a wooden djed column using ropes. An Old Kingdom variant of the determinative hieroglyph in this word 'backbone' is F41, which is the top part of the Djed Pillar: Most of the Djeds found in later tombs have been flat objects, usually no thicker than a quarter of its width, these flat representations of the Djed probably being derived from the hieroglyphic renditions. Beneath these mats are four tall vessels containing unguents and oil, with bundles of lettuce sticking out among them. They are sometimes represented as sprouting from the top of a lotus, which, like the papyrus, symbolized new life as in the vignette from chapter 125 of the Book of the Dead: The 'Four Sons' personified and combined Although it was widely used as a religious icon throughout much of the history and geography of Ancient Egypt, it is still not clearly understood what the Djed was originally conceived to represent. Beneath the large slab of the base are two tall offering stands – one bears a libation vessel, while flowers have been laid on the other. The djed came to be associated with Seker, the falcon god of the Memphite necropolis, then with Ptah, the Memphite patron god of craftsmen. The act of raising the djed has been explained as representing Osiris’s triumph over Seth. This notion of the King finding the soul of Re in Djedu was developed at a much earlier time and it is described in the Pyramid Texts where it is written: The first quote above is from utterance 410 of the Pyramid Texts and shows that 'you of Djedu', a title of Osiris, 37 and the Djed pillar itself are situated in a mythological place called the 'place where his soul is found'.38 Then in utterance 625 the Djed pillar in the 'place where his soul is found' is referred to as a "staff" by means of which the deceased "goes up", presumably referring to the staffs of the Four Sons of Horus combined in the east which help lift the King into heaven. Sometimes he even replaces Shu, in his role of the supporter of Heaven and at times he was referred to as the "raiser up of heaven upon its four pillars and supporter of the same in the firmament".30 In this capacity he is depicted as the Djed with arms upheld supporting the sky as pictured on the right.31  In a hymn inscribed on the walls of the temple of Esna, Khnum is called "The prop of heaven who hath spread out the same with his hands"32 and in the Pyramid Texts, Khnum is referred to as a "Pillar of the Great Mansion. Learn more. The cartouche acts like a rope, tying the symbols and name together into a single package. Determining its meaning from its appearance alone is not an easy task so we shall take some of the suggested definitions and analyse each individually. Djed pillars could be found surrounded by a cartouche, along with other power symbols, and even a person's name. Neters are generally described as Egyptian gods and "33 In utterance 586 of the Pyramid Texts Khnum makes a ladder for the king to use to ascend to the sky. The Djed is a pillar-like symbol in Egyptian hieroglyphs representing stability. In the texts relating to the deification of the members, the deceased's hands are said to be those of the Ram god Ba-Neb-Djed, and his fingers associated with the constellation of Orion in the southern sky.41, The presence of the unique 'air-shafts' in the Khufu's pyramid has been and still is a topic of much discussion. *This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Djed, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0 (view authors). — Sigrid Hodel-Hoenes, Life and death in ancient Egypt. The motif symbolizes rebirth and the sunrise. Celebrated as it was at that time of the year when the soil and climate were most suitable for agriculture, the festival and its ceremonies can be seen as an appeal to Osiris, who was the God of vegetation, to favor the growth of the seeds sown, paralleling his own resurrection and renewal after his murder by Seth. The rituals and spells described in the archaic Pyramid Texts are most likely the source of this later legend related by Plutarch. These four 'sons' of Horus may be viewed in this regard as being the four elements that together form the soul, the hawk being the symbol of both the god Horus and at one time the soul, or ba.22. Without including the occasions when expressed as a title prefixed to the King's cartouche, the god Osiris is mentioned in over 170 different utterances or spells in the Pyramid Texts. It is commonly understood to represent his spine. The tyet hieroglyph may have become associated with Isis because of its frequent pairing with the djed. He states that originally Osiris was probably represented by the Djed alone, and that he had no other form. Parallels have also been drawn between the djed pillar and various items in other cultures. The body of Osiris becomes enclosed in the trunk of a tree and is associated with the Djed pillar in utterance 574. The site looks at the architectural metaphors formed by the innovative arrangement of the chambers inside the Great Pyramid following the theory proposed by James Allen and supported by other Egyptologists such as Jean Leclant and Mark Lehner, that the substructure of the Old Kingdom pyramids were designed to correspond to the geography of the Duat. The trunk of this tree containing the body of Osiris is then cut down and turned into a pillar for the house of the King. The coffin was carried by the Nile to the ocean and on to the city of Byblos in Lebanon. Myth Katherine Harper and Robert Brown also discuss a possible strong link between the djed column and the concept of kundalini in yoga. It is commonly understood to represent his spine. She then consecrated the pillar, anointing it with myrrh and wrapping it in linen. Body of Osiris | He is associated with Ptah, the god of creation and Osiris, the god of the infraworld and the dead. The object of mummification was not so much the preservation of the body as it had been during life, but the transfiguration of the corpse into a new body 'filled with magic', a simulacrum or statue in wrappings and resin.39 The King's ba could not be released from his body unless the corpse was made 'firm', 'established', 'stable', 'enduring', 'whole', 'sound',40 in other words, made Djed-like. The djed pillar could be found on a seal ring, along with other symbols … Djed This symbol consists of a column made up of a wide base which narrows at the top, crossed by parallel lines (usually four). It is associated with the creator god Ptah and Osiris, the Egyptian god of the afterlife, the underworld, and the dead. It is associated with Ptah, the god of creation and Osiris, the god of the underworld and the dead. The Four Sons of Horus are again related to his body by them featuring on the four sides of his sarcophagus together with their protective goddesses, Isis, Nephthys, Serqet, and Neit much like the canopic chest of Tutankhamun pictured below. "...he commends me to these four children who sit on the east side of the sky, "I have gone up by means of the staff which is in the 'Place Where his Soul is Found'. The djed -pillar was designed as a symbol of Osiris and later came to be understood as a representation of his backbone. Returning to utterance 410, the King finds Osiris seated "...on the 'Tower of the Mummified body', which is associated with the Four Sons of Horus on the east side of the sky in utterance 507. The djed was an important part of the ceremony called “raising the djed“, which was a part of the celebrations of the Sed festival, the Egyptian jubilee celebration. In the tomb in the temple, the scene shows the raising of the djed pillar taking place in the morning of Amenhotep III’s third Sed festival, which took place in his thirty-seventh regnal year. Legend of Osiris | Alan Gardiner suggests that it represents 'a column imitating a bundle of stalks tied together'2 Yet he describes this hieroglyph: , the top section of the Djed,3 as 'vertebrae conventionally depicted'.4 It is used in the word pesed, meaning 'back', as in 'spine'.5, According to Wallis Budge, the Djed is the oldest symbol of Osiris, and symbolizes his backbone and his body in general. The word for 'ladder' in this case, however, is spelled with the symbol for 'ribs'34. He also proposed a common origin between Osiris and the Assyrian god Assur with whom he said, the sacred tree might be associated. "O you four gods who stand at the supports of the sky. The Djed is a pillar-like structure in ancient Egyptian symbolism that signifies stability. The name Khnum-Khufu, meaning 'Khnum protects me', is reflected in the design of his pyramid, which may be likened to the image of Khnum as the Djed with his arms upraised, one to the north, the other to the south. Sidney Smith in 1922, first suggested a parallel with the Assyrian “sacred tree” when he drew attention to the presence of the upper four bands of the djed pillar and the bands that are present in the center of the vertical portion of the tree. Even when pictured without the ribs attached, four vertebrae supported by a stand take on the appearance of the Djed: Looking at images of the backbone, a likeness to the Djed symbol can be observed: In the two examples above, the upper four vertebrae have been left as is, while the lower four vertebrae forming the stand have had their transverse processes 'trimmed' to form a straight shaft. Colored hieroglyph and ancient Egyptian mythology symbol, meaning stability. The word for pillar, wadj, also means "raw", "make flourish",18 and "to be young and new", "youthful"19 and therefore fits in a general sense with the Four Sons as they are the young children of Horus who aid in the rejuvenation of the King. This would seem to be alluding once again to the backbone of Osiris, upon which, the King ascends to the sky with the sun god Re in utterance 321 of the same texts. Known as ‘the god’s backbone’, it represents stability, fertility, resurrection and eternal life (harking back to the god Osiris). Set then had the coffin with the now-deceased Osiris flung into the Nile. This pillar came to be known as the pillar of Djed. Inside the tomb of Horemheb in the Valley of the Kings, his canopic chest containing the four organs was placed in a small room, featuring a life sized image of the Djed pictured together with Osiris. The Greeks called it Busiris, after the shortened title Per-Asar - "The House of Osiris", Mythologically, the 'Raising of the Djed' symbolised the resurrection of Osiris, and with its annual re-enactment represented the death and renewal of the yearly cycle. In the beginning, these were instruments for manipulating megalithic energies. One of the most commonly found and mysterious hieroglyphic symbols is known as the djed symbol. In the following two scenes from the Temple of Hathor at Denderah, the four papyrifrom pillars on either side of the funeral bier in the first picture are exchanged with Djed pillars in the next: At the coronation of the new Horus-King, four birds each bearing the name and head of the one of the Four Sons of Horus were released towards the four directions marked by the four pillars of Heaven.15, When the four pillars are combined they form the Djed pillar, a symbol synonymous with the body of Osiris. One of the most enigmatic symbols of Ancient Egypt is the Tet, or  Djed. It is commonly understood to represent his spine. Cohen and Kangas suggest that the tree is probably associated with the Sumerian god of male fertility, Enki and that for both Osiris and Enki, an erect pole or polelike symbol stands beneath a celestial symbol. Meaning: The djed column was the Egyptian symbol of "stability". The Feather of Maat Symbol. 9. Typical Distinctive Features of the Djed symbol: Raymond Faulkner sees the Djed as 'a cult object resembling a tree trunk with lopped-off horizontal branches, sacred to Osiris, Ptah and Sokar'1 He interprets the meaning of its use hieroglyphically as 'stable', 'enduring'. There are symbols used in spirituality, culture, family, politics, finance, afterlife, etc. To the right is the king himself, presenting a generously laid table. But first of all lets look at the key elements that make up the symbol. Being such old pieces, they give us valuable insight into the original design and therefore the original function of the Djed before it became a flat icon. He regards the Djed hieroglyph as a conventional representation of a part of his spinal column and gives its meaning as "to be stable, to be permanent, abiding, established firmly, enduring.6, Scenes depicting the 'Raising of the Djed' ceremony, The reconstruction of the body of Osiris occurred at a place called Djedu,in the Delta region of Lower Egypt and it was here that the yearly ceremony of 'Raising the Djed Pillar' took place on the last day of the month of Khoiak, the eve of the agricultural New Year. Known as “The Backbone of Osiris“, it represents strength and stability and linked to Osiris … The pillar of Djed has its roots in a myth wherein Osiris … The symbol was widely recognized… In 1964 Egyptologist Dr Alexander Badawy, with the help of Virginia Trimble, realised that Orion was most likely the target of the burial chamber's southern shaft during the time of Khufu, which he deduced was designed to help the soul of the dead King rise up to his dwelling place in Orion as mentioned in the Pyramid Texts.42, Flinders Petrie had previously observed the southern shaft's alignment with the Midday Sun on the 2nd of November, a date that may even correlate with the Raising of the Djed ceremonies on the last day of Khoiak during the reign of Khufu, about four and a half thousand years ago.43, Such an alignment would have allowed the soul of Re to enter the Djed-shaped tomb, thereby fulfilling the textual declaration of the soul of Osiris and the soul of Re meeting in Djedu.44. This connection of the 'Tower of the Mummified body', with the Djed Pillar, Osiris, his soul, and the Four Sons of Horus in the east with their staff(s), reinforces a number of the interpretations of the Djed symbol that have been suggested in this article. This probably refers to the tradition related in the Hymn to Osiris, dating from the Middle Kingdom, of sending sailing expeditions to Byblos to obtain trees from which to make coffins.10, Chapter 155 of the Book of the Dead associates the Djed with the backbone and vertebrae of Osiris. It is associated with the creator god Ptah and Osiris, the Egyptian god of the afterlife, the underworld, and the dead. it was first known as the symbol of Ptah the god of Creation before being adopted by Osiris king of the underworld.