The performance of drug users on the Stroop task and visual dot-probe task has been interpreted as demonstrating attentional bias toward drug cues specific to an individual’s drug use history. No significant correlation between attentional bias and drug use behaviors (total years, days in past 30 days and age to start cocaine use) was observed in cocaine-dependent subjects. A consistent feature of addiction is the attentional bias for drug-related stimuli (eg, drug paraphernalia). In this study, we investigated first whether pre-treatment impulsivity and attentional bias predict treatment outcome; next whether the drug modafinil given as an add-on treatment to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) improves impulsivity and attentional bias; and last, whether changes in impulsivity and attentional bias are related to improvements in treatment outcome. Attentional biases also develop for stimuli that have been paired with nondrug rewards in adults without a history of addiction, the magnitude of which is predicted by visual working-memory capacity and impulsiveness. For people with substance use disorder, exposure to drugs or things that remind them of drugs can trigger drug craving, which can sabotage efforts to stop using. Journal of Neurotherapy: Vol. The noradrenaline system has been critically implicated in both attentional and response inhibitory processes and is directly affected by drugs such as cocaine. “Researchers have found that people who have eating disorders tend to pay more attention to stimuli related to food, while individuals experiencing drug addictions tend to be hyper-sensitive to drug-related cues. Patients with cocaine dependence and PTSD, as compared to patients with only cocaine addiction and control participants, showed excessive cue reactivity to both drug- and trauma-related visual stimuli. Chapter. Most profound differences were found in the amplitude and latency of frontal P3a, and centro-parietal P3b ERP components. did not find a relationship between attentional bias and drug use history in cocaine-dependent subjects. Drug-related attentional bias appears to implicate the countermanding forces of cognitive control and reward salience. Objectives: The purpose of this article is to critically evaluate the following claims derived from contemporary theoretical models of attentional bias (AB) for food- and drug-related stimuli: (a) AB is a characteristic feature of obesity and addiction, (b) AB predicts future behavior, (c) AB exerts a causal influence on consummatory behavior, and (d) AB reflects appetitive motivational processes. This impacts not only the things that we perceive in the environment but the decisions that we make based upon our perceptions. Int J High Risk Behav Addict. Methods Studies were identified through systematic searches in bibliographical databases. Attentional Bias to Drug- and Stress-Related Pictorial Cues in Cocaine Addiction Comorbid with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been of increasing interest in the past few years as a means for modulating neuroplasticity of the human brain. Because the attentional bias might propel the person to use the substance, an intervention might help modify it. 4, pp. Attentional biases for drug-related stimuli play a prominent role in addiction, predicting treatment outcomes. Perceptual preferences for drug-linked stimuli are an essential element within the neurobiology of addiction. 2014 September; 3(3): e18669. Attentional bias modification (ABM) interventions have been developed to address addiction by reducing attentional bias for substance-related cues. Read "Attentional bias training and cue reactivity in cigarette smokers, Addiction" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips. Drug and Alcohol Dependence , 67(2), pp.185-191. This study provides a systematic review of the effectiveness of ABM interventions in decreasing symptoms of addictive behaviour, taking baseline levels of attentional bias and changes in attentional bias into account. Journal of Neurotherapy: Vol. However, CET does not specifically reduce attentional bias. Attentional bias and drug taking. When you are trying to make an important decision, do you always consider all of the possibilities? Background and Aims Cognitive bias modification (CBM) interventions, presumably targeting automatic processes, are considered particularly promising for addictions. Keywords: addiction, drug, Stroop test, attentional bias Iran has the highest number of narcotics abusers in the world per capita (2.8% of the population; United Nations, 2005) and regardless of the governmental efforts, drug abuse is still increasing among the population, particularly the young (Sarami & Ghomashchi, 2003). In addiction, a hyper-attentive state may develop towards drug-related cues, characterised as an attention bias to such cues. Similarly, Hester et al. Because drug stimuli produce conditioned responses that may motivate drug taking, biased attention toward these cues may play an important role in drug use and relapse following treatment. In synthesizing the findings regarding attentional bias and cue-induced craving, we suggest that MBIs may restructure attentional bias away from drug-related reinforcing stimuli (e.g., drug-cues, negative affective stimuli) and facilitate the addict’s attempts to deal with associated cravings. 205-225. Drug dependence produces an attentional bias for the drug in question, causing addicted individuals to fixate on stimuli related to the substance in question. Geeky Definition of Attentional Bias: Attentional Bias causes people not to examine all possible outcomes when making judgements.In other words, their attention is on just one or two of the possible outcomes. For example, with regard to addiction, one influential model argues that attentional bias simply represents an output of the underlying neurobiological adaptations that drive drug-seeking behaviour (Robinson & Berridge, 1993). Attentional bias (AB) is hypothesized to have a causal contribution to substance abuse, addiction development and, maintenance. 205-225. doi: 10.1080/10874200802502185 As drug seeking, drug procurement, and drug use rise to the top of one’s motivational priorities, one develops attentional bias toward words, symbols, and images linked to these substances. A greater understanding of the mechanisms directing of attention towards salient stimuli, termed attentional bias, may help elucidate the mechanisms involved in the motivation smoke, and the motivation to drink in problem drinkers. 12, No. A common type of Attentional Bias is one in which two conditions can be present (see the example below), meaning there are four possible outcomes. At baseline, the sample did not exhibit a significant attentional bias toward smoking cues, t(48) = 0.46, not significant (ns). Further, attentional bias was reduced in both groups after therapy, independent of treatment condition. Comparing attentional bias to smoking cues in current smokers, former smokers, and non-smokers using a dot-probe task. Measurement. Attentional Bias to Drug- and Stress-Related Pictorial Cues in Cocaine Addiction Comorbid with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Attentional bias is one of the most studied cognitive processes in addiction. 12, No. Stroop tests tend to show subjects with anxiety disorders are more easily distracted and more prone to attentional bias. ABSTRACT Aims Attentional bias for drug‐related cues has been associated with drug maintenance and relapse. (2008). Rationale: Biased attention towards drug-related cues and reduced inhibitory control over the regulation of drug-intake characterize drug addiction. Current Concepts and State of Knowledge . The attentional bias involves the tendency to pay attention to some things while simultaneously ignoring others. Conclusions Attentional bias may tap an important component of drug dependence as it is a predictor of opiate relapse. We conducted a meta-analysis examining randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CBM for substance addiction outcomes. 4, pp. Attentional Bias for Nondrug Reward Is Magnified in Addiction Brian A. Anderson, Monica L. Faulkner, Jessica J. Rilee, Steven Yantis, and Cherie L. Marvel Johns Hopkins University Attentional biases for drug-related stimuli play a prominent role in addiction, predicting treatment outcomes. In this article, we discuss techniques that have been developed to help people overcome their attentional bias for alcohol, smoking-related stimuli, drugs, or unhealthy food. Request PDF | On Jan 1, 2010, Matt Field and others published Attentional Bias to Drug Cues | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate. Attentional bias scores are presented in Table 1. (2019) examined attentional bias modification amongst 42 methamphetamine-dependent clients who were receiving residential treatment for their drug use. Despite a somewhat higher attentional bias at baseline in the training group (mean difference = 9.80), this was not statistically significant, t(47) = 1.75, ns. The rest are ignored. Dean A.C. et al. As predicted by numerous theoretical models, drug abusers have an attentional bias for drug-related pictures and words. Journal They reported that bias retraining did not result in a reduction in attentional biases and that there was no impact of bias retraining on cravings. DOI: 10.5812/ijhrba.18669 Published online 2014 August 26. (2008). Basic cognitive neuroscience research suggests that ignoring emotionally evocative stimuli in our environment requires both up-regulation of control networks and down-regulation of processing in emotion and reward regions. The most commonly used task is a modified version of the classic “Stroop” task. Objectives: The purpose of this article is to critically evaluate the following claims derived from contemporary theoretical models of attentional bias (AB) for food-and drug-related stimuli: (a) AB is a characteristic feature of obesity and addiction, (b) AB predicts future behavior, (c) AB exerts a causal influence on consummatory behavior, and (d) AB reflects appetitive motivational processes. What Exactly Is an Attentional Bias?